Last week, Jelle tweeted about the women who dressed up as men to land a job with the VOC and were fired when subsequently their ‘real’ gender became known.
Several people have asked for more information, in particular about the origins of the women involved. Below is a spreadsheet that lists their (for obvious reasons fake) names, and their place of origin – all other information available about the individuals are also listed. As you can see in the ‘remarks’ column, there are some really interesting cases: a woman going by the name of ‘Hendrik Huijsloop’ married a fellow sailor on board the Petronella Alida, and the ‘Joannes Burghart’ case is even more spectacular, or in any case more successful. She was only discovered to be a woman after having served as a soldier for no less than three years! There might even have been women in the ranks of the VOC who went until safely returning in the Netherlands, but alas the data do not allow us to trace them down… For more information about transvestism in early modern Europe, please have a look at the book by Rudolf Dekker and Lotte van de Pol (it’s by no means our area of expertise!).
Tip: clicking the links in the last column leads you to a scan of the entry in the original VOC payment ledgers. The right-hand side (in some cases you have to go one page up to view this side) shows the reason why the employment ended.
Daniel Engel was a young man from ‘Dantsig’ (modern-day Gdańsk in Poland) who travelled to the Dutch Republic in the mid-18th century to apply for a job with the Dutch East India Company (VOC). We’ve written about him before (in this blog post, where we introduced the Company’s pay ledgers, one of our main data sources) and now come back to him once more. Not that Engel is so special–on the contrary, there were thousands of men like him in the ranks of the VOC–but because his story is a good case in point for illustrating our work on reconstructing maritime careers.
1766: first journey to the East Indies
A clerk of the Delft chamber of the VOC recorded Engel’s name and birthplace in the pay ledger of a brand new ship called Vrouwe Anthoinetta Koenrardina, that would set sail for the East Indies on 1 October 1766. The VOC hired Engel as a common sailor, on a wage of seven guilders per month. This is all we can infer about the life of Daniel Engel from his employment record, but we do know more about the environment in which he would work en route to Asia. There were 300 men on board, mostly Dutchmen, as can be seen from the map below, but also quite a few men from the German lands and the Southern Netherlands, as well as a number of individuals from the coastal areas of southern Scandinavia, Malta and Batavia (modern-day Jakarta).
This is an interactive map; clicking on a marker reveals employment details of a crew member. By default, the map only shows one marker per geographic location, and the Gdańsk marker is not linked to Daniel Engel. By clicking on the expand button (^) located just above the map, and changing the map setting to ‘Grouped’, it becomes visible that Engel was joined on board by one other man from his home town: Christiaan Cornelis Gerlach, who was employed as a soldier. While Engel returned to Europe on the same ship in 1768, Gerlach stayed behind in Asia, where he died on 3 August 1770.
Interrogated by the English
More than ten years later, in 1781, shortly after the beginning of the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, a Daniel Engel from ‘Dantzick’ was taken to the Fountain Tavern in Plymouth to be interrogated after his ship had been captured by the English privateer ship Defiance (see this blog post for more on privateering during wartime). He told his questioners that he was 28 years old, worked as a boatswain on a vessel called De Keyser Josephus, and that he had lived in Rotterdam for the past thirteen years. It is likely that this Daniel Engel is the same person as the one who sailed to Asia in 1766, even though he would have been only thirteen or fourteen years old back then. He had switched to the merchant marine: De Keyser Josephus was en route from Curacao to Rotterdam, carrying a cargo of wood, hides, sugar, tobacco, cocoa, coffee and tea.
To Asia again
It seems Daniel Engel switched back to the ranks of the VOC in the late 1780s: there are mentions of a Daniel Engel from Dantzig in VOC pay ledgers from 1788 and 1792. While he worked as a boatswain’s mate on his second voyage to the East Indies and back (he returned in the Dutch Republic in 1791), he was an able seamen on his third, from which he did not come back: Engel died in Asia, on 2 October 1798, when the VOC was already in a state of bankruptcy.
Daniel Engel did not rise high through the ranks of the VOC and the merchant marine–he died as an able seamen. By zooming out from Engel, and reconstructing careers of many more sailors, our future research will point out whether it is likely that he lacked the skills to get promoted or changing labour market conditions were to blame.
The pay ledgers of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) are an important data source for our projects (we tell more about this source in this blog post). The following dynamic heatmaps give a good impression of the regions where the sailors on board of the ships headed for Asia originated.
For clarity reasons, crew members from one of the six VOC towns (Amsterdam, Delft, Enkhuizen, Hoorn, Middelburg and Rotterdam) were excluded from these maps.
Our research on the careers of maritime workers is based on a number of data sources, which we’ll introduce in separate blog posts. First up is a database containing the maritime personnel records of the Dutch East India Company (VOC).
In the period 1602-1795, just under 5,000 Dutch East India Company ships sailed from the Dutch Republic to Asia. Each of these kept a pay ledger, in which personal particulars and salary information for all paid crew members were registered. Not all pay ledgers have survived until today, but for the late 17th and, especially, the 18th century, the ledgers give a very good view of the (highly international) workforce of the company.
Each record contains, among other things, data on a sailor’s name, place of birth, rank on board, as well as start and end dates of the employment, and the reason why the employment ended. The image above (large version) shows the entry of Daniel Engel from ‘Dantsig’ (modern-day Gdańsk in Poland), who signed up with the Delft branch of the VOC on the first of October, 1766. He worked as an ordinary seaman during the seven-month journey to Batavia (now Jakarta), stayed there for nine months and then sailed back to Europe on the same ship. He was paid 7 guilders per month by the company. Engel was probably illiterate, as he signed with a cross.
150,000 uniquely spelled birth places
The pay ledgers were literally transcribed, resulting in the fact that the database contains more than 150,000 unique place name attestations. The Hague occurs in no less than 333 variations.
When a sailor survived the journey to Asia and back, and later re-joined the VOC, a new entry in a new pay ledger was made. Therefore, to reconstruct careers from this database, we had to link records that are (in all likelihood) related to the same individual. To facilitate the linkage (we explain our linkage methodology in this post) we tried to standardize as many place name attestations as possibly—mostly by hand. We will share the standardized birth places of more than 80 percent of the records (reconciled to GeoNames and thus also geo-referenced) at a later stage; plotted on a map, they look like this: